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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Misaligned Flip-Chip Solder Joints: Prediction and Experimental Determination of Force-Displacement Curves

[+] Author and Article Information
D. Josell, W. E. Wallace, J. A. Warren, D. Wheeler

National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899

A. C. Powell

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139

J. Electron. Packag 124(3), 227-233 (Jul 26, 2002) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1463732 History: Received December 19, 2000; Online July 26, 2002
Copyright © 2002 by ASME
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References

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Figures

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Schematic of the specimen geometry. Eight copper pads, each 5 μm thick with a ∼30 nm Ti intermediate layer on silicon wafer. Two such wafers, with a solder ball between each corresponding pair of pads, were sandwiched together to make each specimen. The pads were all either 0.64 mm or 0.35 mm in diameter. Spacing between pad centers was 5 mm.
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Shear loading geometry. The stand-off height and lateral offset are defined. Note that the triple point is actually a line where the solid base, liquid solder and ambient vapor come into contact. Note that the contact angle θ will vary along the triple line under non-zero shear loading. In the experiments and modeling, the triple line is not constrained to lie on the perimeter of the pad.
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(a) Cross-sectioned solder joints. From top to bottom the shear force is: 34 μN, 68 μN, 100 μN, and 120 μN. Normal forces are approximately 1.95 mN. The pad diameters are all ∼350 μm in the cross-sectioned images. (b) Close-up of the solder-pad-silicon interfaces showing the intermetallic layer formed between the Pb-Sn eutectic solder and copper pad as well as a Pb-rich dendrite in the solder.
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Experimental and “best fit” simulation for 0.029 mm3 solder joints and 0.64 mm diameter pads. Experimental data and best fit modeling results are shown for both the stand-off height and lateral offset as functions of the shear force. A portion of the triple line is predicted to move onto the substrate at ∼65 μN, causing the kink in the predicted force-displacement curve.
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Experimental and “best fit” simulation for 0.0086 mm3 solder joints and 0.64 mm diameter pads. Experimental data and best fit modeling results are shown for both the stand-off and lateral offset as functions of the shear force. The triple line lies on the pad perimeter for the range of shear forces shown.
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Experimental and “best fit” simulations for 0.0063 mm3 solder joints and 0.35 mm diameter pads. Experimental data and best fit modeling results are shown for both the stand-off and lateral offset as functions of the shear force. The triple line lies partly on the substrate for the range of shear forces shown.
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Experimental and “best fit” simulations for nominal 0.0019 mm3 solder joints and 0.35 mm diameter pads. Experimental data and best fit modeling results (for actual ∼0.0022 mm3 solder volume) are shown for both the stand-off and lateral offset as functions of the shear force. The triple line wets the substrate at a shear force of ∼20 μN.
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Energy contours around the minimum energy regions using data points from many simulations. At ϕtilt=1.625 the shear force has reached a saddle point indicating an increase in ϕtilt would lead to failure of the sample.
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Comparison of experimental data and force-displacement curves for 0.029 mm3 solder joints and 0.64 mm diameter pads holding θSi=150 deg and varying γ
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Proportion of the triple line on the substrate for 0.029 mm3 solder joints and 0.64 mm diameter pads holding θSi=150 deg and varying γ. The critical point, at which the solder wets the substrate, corresponds to the change in slope of the force-displacement curves in Fig. 9.
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Comparison of experimental data and force-displacement curves for 0.029 mm3 solder joints and 0.64 mm diameter pads holding γ=0.4 N/m2 and varying θSi
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Lateral offset for 0.35 mm pads, γ=0.4 N/m2 and θSi=150 deg for solder balls of varying diameter. The experimental distribution is consistent with the known variation of solder ball volumes.
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Stand-off height for 0.35 mm pads, γ=0.4 N/m2 and θSi=150 deg for solder balls of varying diameter. Data corresponds to that in Fig. 12.

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