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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Mechanical Modeling and Characterization of the Curing Process of Underfill Materials

[+] Author and Article Information
L. J. Ernst, C. van ’t Hof, D. G. Yang, M. S. Kiasat

Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5033, 2600 GA Delft, The Netherlands

G. Q. Zhang, H. J. L. Bressers, J. F. J. Caers, A. W. J. den Boer, J. Janssen

Philips, P.O. Box 218, 5600 MD Eindhoven, The Netherlands

J. Electron. Packag 124(2), 97-105 (May 02, 2002) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1459471 History: Received July 06, 2000; Online May 02, 2002
Copyright © 2002 by ASME
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References

Lagasse, R. R., Chambers, R. S., Guess, T. R., Plazek, D. J., and Bero, C., 1991, “Mechanical modeling of stress generation during cure of encapsulation resins,” Materials Reliability Issues in Microelectronics Symposium, pp. 177–182.
Chambers, R. S., Lagasse, R. R., Guess, T. R. and Plazek, D. J., 1992, “A cure shrinkage model for analyzing the stresses and strains in encapsulated assemblies,” Advances in Electronic Packaging, Proceedings of the 1992 Joint ASME/JSME Conference on Electronic Packaging, Milpitas, CA, pp. 537–542.
Plepys,  A., Vratsanos,  M. S., and Farris,  R. J., 1994, “Determination of residual stresses using incremental linear elasticity,” Composite Structures, 27, pp. 51–56.
Lange,  J., Toll,  S., Manson,  J. E., and Hult,  A., 1995, “Residual stress build-up in thermoset films cured above their ultimate glass transition temperature,” Polymer, 36(16), pp. 3135–3141.
Korotkov, V. N., Chekanov, Y. A., Smirnov, Y. N. and Zenkov, I. D., 1996, “Shrinkage stresses during cure of constraint polymer matrix,” ECCM-7: Seventh European Conference on Composite Materials. Realizing their Commercial Potential, Vol. 1, London, UK pp. 141–146.
Kim,  Y. K., and White,  S. R., 1996, “Stress relaxation behavior of 3501-6 epoxy resin during cure,” Polym. Eng. Sci., 36(23) Dec., pp. 2852–2862.
Lange,  J., Toll,  S., Manson,  J. E., and Hult,  A., 1997, “Residual stress build-up in thermoset films cured below their ultimate glass transition temperature,” Polymer, 38(4), pp. 809–815.
Kiasat,  M. S., Nijhof,  A. H. J., Blokland,  H., and Marissen,  R., 1997, “Shrinkage and Stress Build up in Unsaturated Polyester Resin during Curing,” Polymers and Ceramics, 2, pp. 95–102.
Ernst, L. J., Hof, C. van ’t, Yang, D. G., Kiasat, M. S., Zhang, G. Q., Bressers, H. J. L., Caers, J. F. J., Boer, A. W. J. den, and Janssen, J., 2000, “Mechanical characterization and simulation of packaging polymer curing,” Proc. of the 3th Int. Conf. on Micro Materials, MicroMat 2000, Berlin, Apr..
Kiasat, M. S., 2000, “Curing Shrinkage and Residual Stresses in Viscoelastic Thermosetting Resins and Composites,” Ph.D. thesis, Delft University of technology, Delft.
Yang,  D. G., Ernst,  L. J., Hof,  C. van’t, Kiasat,  M. S., Bisschop,  J., Janssen,  J., Kuper,  F., Liang,  Z. N., Schravendeel,  R., Zhang,  G. Q., 2000, “Vertical die crack stresses of Flip Chip induced in major package assembly processes,” Microelectron. Reliab., 40, pp. 1533–1538.
Yang, D. G., Zhang, G. Q., Ernst, L. J., Caers, J. F. J., Bressers, H. J. L., Janssen, J., 2001, “Combined experimental and numerical investigation on Flip Chip solder fatigue with cure-dependent underfill properties,” Proc. of the 51st Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC2001), Orlando, May.
Hof,  C. van’t, Kiasat,  M. S., Yang,  D. G., Ernst,  L. J., Zhang,  G. Q., Bressers,  H. J. L., and Caers,  J. F. J., 1999, “Packaging polymer’s curing process characterization and modeling, using Flip Chip underfill as carrier,” Philips report, CTB598-99-2148, Eindhoven.

Figures

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Stress (relaxation) response on a unit step deformation/initial deformation at “load application time” ξ
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Coin-shaped resin sample+reference system
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Cure dependent axial deformation
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Definition of various time-variables
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Chosen relaxation times in minutes.
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Chosen DMA angular frequences (ωk) in rad/s
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Storage shear moduli G(ξ,,ωk)
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Cure dependent stiffness coefficients Gn{α(ξ)} for n=1,2,[[ellipsis]]..,7. {while G8{α(ξ)}∼0}
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Chosen DMA frequences (fk) in s−1
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Test facility for axial DMA and unit step relaxation measurements
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Longitudinal storage bulk modulus M(ξ,,ωk)
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Cure dependent stiffness coefficients Kn{α(ξ)} for n=1,2,3,4. (while K5∼K6∼K7∼0 and K8=1 GPa)
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Flip chip demonstrator configuration
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FEM mesh used for curing stress/strain simulation
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Close up at the outer solder bump
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Stress and strain evolution in epoxy (point A)
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Von Mises stress distribution (60 min)

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