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PAPERS ON RELIABILITY

Thermomechanical Analysis of Solder Joints Under Thermal and Vibrational Loading

[+] Author and Article Information
Cemal Basaran

UB Electronic Packaging Laboratory, University at Buffalo SUNY, Buffalo, NY 14260e-mail: cjb@eng.buffalo.edu

Rumpa Chandaroy

Altair Engineering Inc., Detroit, MI 48071

J. Electron. Packag 124(1), 60-66 (Mar 15, 2001) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1400752 History: Received March 15, 2001
Copyright © 2002 by ASME
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References

Barker,  D., Vodzak,  J., Dasgupta,  A., and Pecht,  M., 1990, “Combined Vibrational and Thermal Solder Joint Fatigue-A Generalized Strain Versus Life Approach,” ASME J. Electron. Packag., 112, pp. 129–134.
Steinberg, D. S., 1988, Vibration Analysis for Electronic Equipment, Wiley, New York, NY. Kashyap,  B. P., and Murty,  G. S., 1981, “Experimental Constitutive Relations for the High Temperature Deformation of a Pb-Sn Eutectic Alloy,” Mater. Sci. Eng., 50, pp. 205–213.
Desai, C., 1995 “Constitutive Modeling Using the Disturbed State Concept,” Chapter 8 in Continuum Models for Materials with Microstructure, H. B. Muhlhaus, ed., Wiley, UK.
Desai,  C. S., and Toth,  J., 1996, “Disturbed State Constitutive Modeling Based on Stress-Strain and Nondestructive Behavior,” Int. J. Solids Struct., 33, No. 11, pp. 1619–1650.
Desai,  C. S., Chia,  J., Kundu,  T., and Prince,  J. L., 1997, “Thermomechanical Response of Materials and Interfaces in Electronic Packaging: Part I-Unified Constitutive Model and Calibration,” J. Electron. Packg., 119, No. 4, pp. 294–306.
Basaran,  C., Desai,  C. S., and Kundu,  T., 1998, “Thermomechanical Finite Element Analysis of Microelectronics Packaging, Part I: Theory,” ASME J. of Electronic Packaging, 120, No. 1, pp. 41–47.
Basaran,  C., Desai,  C. S., and Kundu,  T., 1998, “Thermomechanical Finite Element Analysis of Microelectronics Packaging, Part I: Verification and Application,” ASME J. of Electronic Packaging, 120, No. 1, pp. 48–54.
Basaran, C., and Chandaroy, R., 1999, “Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of Surface Mount Interconnects, Part I: Theory,” ASME Journal of Electronic Packaging, 121 , Mar.
Basaran, C., and Chandaroy, R., 1999, “Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of Surface Mount Interconnects, Part II: Applications,” ASME Journal of Electronic Packaging, 121 , Mar.
Basaran,  C., and Yan,  C. Y., 1998, “A Thermodynamic Framework for Damage Mechanics of Pb/Sn Solder Joints,” ASME J. Electron. Packag. 120, pp. 379–384. Basaran,  G., and Chandaroy,  R., 1997, “Finite Element Simulation of the Temperature Cycling Tests,” IEEE Trans. CPMT. Part A 20, No. 4, pp. 530–536.
Basaran,  C., and Chandaroy,  R., 1998, “Mechanics of Pb40/Sn60 Near-Eutectic Solder Alloys Subjected to Vibrations,” Journal of Applied Mathematical Modeling 22, pp. 601–627.
Boltzamnn, L., 1898, Lectures on Gas Theory, U. of California Press, Trans. by S. Brush 1964.
Halliday D., and Resnick, R., 1966, Physics, Wiley, New York, NY.
Chandaroy, R. 1998, “Damage Mechanics of Microelectronic Packaging Under Combined Dynamic and Thermal Loading,” Ph.D dissertation, SUNY at Buffalo.
Adams, P. J., 1986 “Thermal fatigue of Solder Joints in Micro-Electronic Devices,” MS thesis, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, MIT.
McDowell, D. L., Miller, M. P. and Brooks, D. C., 1994 Fatigue Testing of Electronic Materials, ASTM STP 1153, pp. 42–59.
Busso,  E. P., Kitano,  M., and Kumazawa,  T., 1992, “A Viscoplastic Constitutive Model for 60/40 Tin-Lead Solder used in IC package Joints,” ASME J. Eng. Mater. Technol., 114, pp. 331–337.

Figures

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(a) Comparison of stress versus strain results at different temperatures for strain rate of 1.67×10−3 (b) Comparison of stress versus strain results at different temperatures for strain rate of 1.67×10−4
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(a) Comparison of stress versus strain results at different temperatures for strain rate of 1.0×10−2 (b) Comparison of stress versus strain results at different temperatures for strain rate of 1.0×10−4
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Comparison of cyclic shear stress versus strain results at 25°C
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Comparison of shear stress versus strain results at 22°C and strain rate of 0.003
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A schematic of the SMT package
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Time history of thermal loading
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Time history of dynamic loading
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Shear stress versus strain response for dynamic load of 5g–10Hz in both X and Y directions
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Normal stress versus strain response for dynamic load of 5g–10Hz in both X and Y directions
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Shear stress versus strain response for concurrent thermal and dynamic load 5g–10Hz in both X and Y directions  
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Normal stress versus strain response for concurrent thermal and dynamic load 5g–10Hz in both X and Y directions
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Damage versus number of dynamic cycles for concurrent thermal and dynamic loading of 5g–10Hz in both X and Y directions

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