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TECHNICAL PAPERS

A Dual-Phase-Lag Diffusion Model for Predicting Intermetallic Compound Layer Growth in Solder Joints

[+] Author and Article Information
J. K. Chen, J. E. Beraun

Directed Energy Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Kirtland AFB, NM 87117

D. Y. Tzou

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Missouri at Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211

J. Electron. Packag 123(1), 52-57 (Jun 27, 2000) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1326438 History: Received June 23, 1999; Revised June 27, 2000
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
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References

Yost,  F. G., Ganyard,  F. P., and Karnowsky,  M. M., 1976, “Layer Growth in Au-Pb/In Solder Joints,” Metall. Trans., 7A, pp. 1141–1148.
Romig,  A., Yost,  R., and Hlava,  P., 1984, Report No. SANDIA84-0575, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM.
Wu,  Y., Sees,  J. A., Pouraghabagher,  C., Foster,  L. A., Marshall,  J. L., Jacobs,  E. G., and Pinizzotto,  R. F., 1993, “The Formation and Growth of Intermetallics in Composite Solder,” J. Electron. Mater., 22, No. 7, pp. 769–777.
Erickson,  K. L., Hopkins,  P. L., and Vianco,  P. T., 1994, “Solid State Intermetallic Compound Growth Between Copper and High Temperature, Tin-Rich Solders-Part II: Modeling,” J. Electron. Mater., 23, No. 8, pp. 729–734.
Erickson,  K. L., Hopkins,  P. L., and Vianco,  P. T., 1998, “Modeling the Solid State Reaction Between Sn-Pb Solder and a Porous Substrate Coating,” J. Electron. Mater., 27, No. 11, pp. 1177–1192.
Frear,  D. R., and Vianco,  P. T., 1994, “Intermetallic Growth and Mechanical Behavior of Low and High Melting Temperature Solder Alloys,” Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 25A, pp. 1509–1523.
Vianco,  P. T., Killgo,  A. C., and Grant,  R., 1995, “Intermetallic Compound Layer Growth by Solid State Reactions Between 58Bi-42Sn Solder and Copper,” J. Electron. Mater., 24, No. 10, pp. 1493–1505.
Kang,  S. K., Rai,  R. S., and Purushothaman,  S., 1996, “Interfacial Reactions During Soldering with Lead-Tin Eutectic and Lead (Pb)-Free, Tin-Rich Solders,” J. Electron. Mater., 25, No. 7, pp. 1113–1120.
Schaefer,  M., Laub,  W., Sabee,  J. M., and Fournelle,  R. A., 1996, “A Numerical Method for Predicting Intermetallic Layer Thickness Developed During the Formation of Solder Joints,” J. Electron. Mater., 25, No. 6, pp. 992–1003.
Schaefer,  M., Fournelle,  R. A., and Liang,  J., 1998, “Theory for Intermetallic Phase Growth Between Cu and Liquid Sn-Pb Solder Based on Grain Boundary Diffusion Control,” J. Electron. Mater., 23, No. 11, pp. 1167–1175.
Chen,  S. W., Chen,  C. M., and Liu,  W. C., 1998, “Electric Current Effects Upon the Sn\Cu and Sn\Ni Interfacial Reactions,” J. Electron. Mater., 27, No. 11, pp. 1193–1197.
Williams,  D. S., Rapp,  R. A., and Hirth,  J. P., 1981, “Multilayer Diffusional Growth in Silver-Zinc Alloys” Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 12A, pp. 639–652.
Chen,  J. K., Beraun,  J. E., and Tzou,  D. Y., 1999, “A Dual-Phase-Lag Diffusion Model for Interfacial Layer Growth in Metal Matrix Composites,” J. Mater. Sci., 34, pp. 6183–6187.
Chen,  J. K., Beraun,  J. E., and Tzou,  D. Y., 2000, “A Dual-Phase-Lag Diffusion Model for Predicting thin film Growth,” Semicond. Sci. Technol., 15, pp. 235–241.
Incropera, F. P., and Dewitt, D. P., 1985, Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, Wiley, New York.
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Yost, F. G., and Tzou, D. Y., 1992, “Nonhomogeneous Grain Growth Due to Shear,” Symposium on Modeling of Coarsening and Grain Growth: Non-Ideal Grain Growth, TMS Physical Metallurgy Committee, Chicago, Illinois, Nov. 1–5.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
One-dimensional interfacial compound layer growth
Grahic Jump Location
Four types of interfacial layer growth kinetics: Fick’s behavior (Z=1), gradient-precedence (0<Z<1), mass flux-precedence (1<Z), and diffusion wave (Z=0)
Grahic Jump Location
Comparison of Cu3Sn layer thickness predicted by CDC, VDC, and DPLD models with experimental data (Erickson et al. 4)
Grahic Jump Location
Comparison of Cu6Sn5 layer thickness predicted by CDC, VDC, and DPLD models with experimental data (Erickson et al. 4)
Grahic Jump Location
Comparison of Ag5Zn8 layer thickness predicted by Fick’s law and DPLD model with experimental data (Williams et al. 12)
Grahic Jump Location
Comparison of intermetallic layer in the eutectic solder/copper substrate predicted by Fick’s law and DPLD model with experimental data (Wu et al. 3)

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