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TECHNICAL PAPERS

A Study of Process-Induced Residual Stress in PBGA Packages

[+] Author and Article Information
Zhu Wu, Jian Lu

Laboratory of Mechanical Systems and Concurrent Engineering (LASMIS), Universite de Technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes, Francee-mail: lu@univ-troyes.fr

Yifan Guo

Packaging Mechanics, Semiconductor Products Sector, Motorola, 2100 East Elliot Road, Tempe, AZ 85284

J. Electron. Packag 122(3), 262-266 (Dec 08, 1999) (5 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1285983 History: Received April 20, 1999; Revised December 08, 1999
Copyright © 2000 by ASME
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References

Freyman, B., and Pennisi, R., May 1991, “Overmolded Plastic Pad Array Carriers (OMPAC): a Low Cost, High Interconnect Density IC Packaging Solution for Consumer and Industrial Electronics,” Proceedings of the 41st Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC), pp. 176–182.
Lau, J. H., 1995, Ball Grid Array Technology, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.
Wu, T., 1995, “Process-Induced Residual Stresses in a Glob Top Encapsulated Silicon Chip,” Applications of Fracture Mechanics to Electronic Packaging and Materials, EEP, Vol. 11, MD-Vol. 64, ASME, pp. 123–131.
Guo, Y., 1995, “Applications of Shadow Moiré Method in Determinations of Thermal Deformations in Electronic Packaging,” Proc. of 1995 SEM Spring Conf. On Exp. Mech., Grand Rapids, MI, June.
Jung,  W., Lau,  J. H., and Pao,  Y. H., 1997, “Nonlinear Analysis of Full-Matrix and Perimeter Plastic Ball Grid Array Solder Joints,” ASME J. Electron. Packag., 119, pp. 163–170.
Lau,  J. H., and Chen,  K. L., 1997, “Thermal and Mechanical Evaluations of a Cost-Effective Plastic Ball Grid Array Package,” ASME J. Electron. Packag., 119, pp. 208–212.
Dai,  X., Kim,  C., and Willecke,  R., 1996, “In-Situ Moiré Interferometry Study of Thermomechanical Deformation in Glob-Top Chip-on-Board Packaging,” Exp./Numer. Mech. Electron. Packag., 1, SEM, pp. 15–21.
Guo,  Y., and Liu,  S., 1997, “Development in Optical Methods for Reliability Analysis in Electronic Packaging Applications,” Exp./Numer. Methods Electron. Packag., 2, SEM , pp. 10–21.
Guo,  Y., and Li,  L., 1996, “Hybrid Method for Local Strain Determinations in PBGA Solder Joints,” Exp./Numer. Mech. Electron. Packag., 1, SEM , pp. 15–21.
Zhu,  J., Zhou,  D., Dai,  F., Liu,  S., and Guo,  Y., 1996, “High Temperature Deformation of High Density Interconnects and Packages by Moiré Interferometry/FEM Hybrid Method,” Exp./Numer. Mech. Electron. Packag., 1, SEM , pp. 31–37.
Lu, J., Edit, Editorial Board, James, M., Lu, J., and Roy, G., 1996, Handbook of Measurement of Residual Stresses, SEM, Fairmont Press, Prentice Hall, Lilburn.
Wu,  Z., Lu,  J., and Han,  B., 1998, “Study of Residual Stress Distribution by a Combined Method of Moiré Interferometry and Incremental Hole-Drilling,” ASME J. Appl. Mech., 65, No. 4, pp. 837–843.
Wu,  Z., Lu,  J., and Han,  B, 1998, “Study of Residual Stress Distribution by a Combined Method of Moiré Interferometry and Incremental Hole-Drilling, Part II: Implementation,” ASME J. Appl. Mech., 65, No. 4, pp. 844–850.
Schajer,  G. S., 1981, “Application of Finite Element Calculations to Residual Stress Measurements,” ASME J. Eng. Mater. Technol., 103, pp. 157–163.
Nelson,  D., Fuchs,  E., Makino,  A., and Williams,  D., 1994, “Residual Stress Determination by Single Axis Holographic Interferometry and Hole Drilling, Part II: Experiments,” Exp. Mech., 3, pp. 79–88.
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Post, D., Han, B., and Ifju, P., High Sensitivity Moiré (Experimental Analysis for Mechanics and Materials), Springer-Verlag.

Figures

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A cross section of the plastic ball grid array packaging
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Three-dimensional finite element to determine the calibration coefficients for PBGA packages by using equibiaxial stress field. (a) A 3-D finite element model, (b) deformed shape, (c) surface strain field ε11, (d) surface displacement field, u1.
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Distributions of surface radial displacements on the circle r=1.2r0, for an assumed arbitrary uniform residual stress field calculated by using two methods: the coefficient-calibration method and the direct FEM method
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Ux and Uy fringe patterns obtained from the PBGA packages A and B, when a blind hole was drilled throughout the plastic molding compound; hole radius, r0=1.0 mm and hole depth, h=0.4 mm
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Ux and Uy fringe patterns obtained from the PBGA package B, when a blind hole was drilled by two steps hole drilling with identical increment throughout the chip carrier; hole radius, r0=1.0 mm and hole drilling increment, Δh=0.3 mm
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Magnified view of Ux fringe pattern of the PBGA package B
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Average values of residual stresses in the plastic molding compound of the PBGA packages A and B
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Average values of residual stresses in the chip carrier of the PBGA package B

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