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TECHNICAL PAPERS

A Damage Evolution Model for Thermal Fatigue Analysis of Solder Joints

[+] Author and Article Information
Xiaowu Zhang

APDS Department, Institute of Microelectronics, Singapore Science Park II, Singapore 117685

S-W. Ricky Lee

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong

Yi-Hsin Pao

Materials Engineering Department, Visteon Automotive Systems, Dearborn, MI 48121-6231

J. Electron. Packag 122(3), 200-206 (Oct 31, 1999) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1286121 History: Received January 15, 1999; Revised October 31, 1999
Copyright © 2000 by ASME
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References

Lee,  S-W. R., and Zhang,  X., 1998, “Sensitivity Study on Material Properties for the Fatigue Life Prediction of Solder Joints under Thermal Cyclic Loading,” Circ. World, 24, No. 3, pp. 26–31.
Wen,  L.-C., and Ross,  R. G., 1995, “Comparison of LCC Solder Joint Life Predictions With Experimental Data,” ASME J. Electron. Packag., 117, pp. 109–115.
Ju, S. H, Kuskowski, S., Sandor, B. I., and Plesha, M. E., 1994, “Creep-fatigue Damage Analysis of Solder Joints,” Fatigue of Electronic Materials, ASTM STP 1153, Schroeder, S. A., and Mitchell, M. R., ed., American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 1–21.
Ju,  S. H., Sandor,  B. I., and Plesha,  M. E., 1996, “Life Prediction of Solder Joints by Damage and Fracture Mechanics,” ASME J. Electron. Packag., 118, pp. 193–200.
Gong,  Z. L., and Hsu,  T. R., 1991, “A Constitutive Model for Metals Subjected to Cyclic Creep,” ASME J. Eng. Mater. Technol., 113, pp. 419–424.
Hsu, T. R. and Chen, G. G., 1993, “A Continuum Damage Mechanics Model Approach for Cyclic Creep Fracture Analysis of Solder Joints,” Adv. Electron. Packag., ASME EEP-Vol. 4-1, pp. 127–137.
Lemaitre, J. A., 1996, A Course on Damage Mechanics, 2nd ed., Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Lau, J. H., and Pao, Y.-H., 1997, Solder Joint Reliability of BGA, CSP, Flip Chip, and Fine Pitch SMT Assemblies, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Pao,  Y.-H. , 1992, “Measurement of Mechanical Behavior of High Lead Lead-Tin Solder Joints Subjected to Thermal Cycling,” ASME J. Electron. Packag., 114, pp. 135–144.
Pao,  Y.-H., Govila,  R., Badgley,  S., and Jih,  E., 1993, “An Experimental and Finite Element Study of Thermal Fatigue Fracture of PbSn Solder Joints,” ASME J. Electron. Packag., 115, pp. 1–8.
Pao,  Y.-H., Badgley,  S., Jih,  E., Govila,  R., and Browning,  J., 1993, “Constitutive Behavior and Low Cycle Thermal Fatigue of 97Sn-3Cu Solder Joints,” ASME J. Electron. Packag., 115, pp. 147–152.
Pao, Y.-H., Badgley, S., Govila, R., and Jih, E., 1994, “An Experimental and Modeling Study of Thermal Cyclic Behavior of Sn-Cu and Sn-Pb Solder Joints,” MRS Symposium Proceedings, Electronic Packaging Materials Science VII, Borgesen, P., et al., ed., Vol. 323, pp. 153–158.
Zhang,  X., and Lee,  S-W. R., 1998, “Effects of Temperature Profile on the Life Prediction of PBGA Solder Joints under Thermal Cycling,” Key Eng. Mater., 145–149, pp. 1133–1138.
Pao, Y.-H., and Song, X., 1998, “Thermal Reliability of Plastic BGA Assemblies under Harsh Automotive Environment,” Proc. 3rd Int. Symp. on Electronic Packaging Technology (ISEPT’98), Beijing, China, pp. 323–339.
Darveaux, R., Banerji, K., Mawer, A., and Dody, G., 1995, “Reliability of Plastic Ball Grid Array Assembly,” Chapter 13, Ball Grid Array Technology, Lau, J. H., ed., McGraw-Hill, New York.
Kim, Y.-G. Han, B., Choi, K.-S., and Kim, M.-K., 1996, “Bottom Leadded Plastic (BLP) Package: A New Design with Enhanced Solder Joint Reliability,” Proc. Electro. Compon. Technol. Conf., pp. 448–452.
Zhang, X., Lee, S.-W. R., Choi, K.-S., and Kim, Y.-G., 1998, “Effects of Package Materials on the Solder Joint Reliability of BLP (Bottom-Leaded Plastic) Package Assembly,” Proc. 3rd Int. Symp. on Electronic Packaging Technology (ISEPT’98), Beijing, China, pp. 239–244.

Figures

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Experimental creep hysteresis loops of 63Sn/37Pb under thermal cycling between 40 and 140°C (Lau and Pao 8)
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Least square curve fitting for damage evolution function
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Finite element mesh of the double-beam specimen
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Comparison of creep hysteresis loops between testing (Lau and Pao 8) and simulation
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Time history of shear stress in the solder joint for 100 thermal cycles
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Time history of creep shear strain in the solder joint for 100 thermal cycles
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Contour of creep strain energy density in the solder joint of double-beam specimen
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Time history of creep strain energy density evaluated at the center of the solder joint of double-beam specimen
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Finite element mesh for a 272 PBGA-PCB assembly
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Creep strain energy density distribution in the PBGA-PCB assembly
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Contour of creep strain energy density in the critical solder joint of PBGA-PCB assembly
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Time history of creep strain energy density evaluated at the center of the critical solder joint of the PBGA-PCB assembly
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Finite element mesh for a BLP-PCB assembly
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Contour of creep strain energy density in the critical solder joint of BLP-PCB assembly
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Time history of creep strain energy density evaluated at the center of the critical solder joint of the BLP-PCB assembly

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