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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Computational Modeling and Validation of the Encapsulation of Plastic Packages by Transfer Molding

[+] Author and Article Information
L. Nguyen, C. Quentin, W. Lee

National Semiconductor Corporation, P.O. Box 58090, M/S 19-100, Santa Clara, CA 95052

S. Bayyuk

CFD Research Corporation, 215 Wynn Drive, Huntsville, AL 35805

S. A. Bidstrup-Allen, S.-T. Wang

Georgia Institute of Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Atlanta, GA 30332

J. Electron. Packag 122(2), 138-146 (Sep 21, 1999) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.483146 History: Received August 19, 1988; Revised September 21, 1999
Copyright © 2000 by ASME
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References

Nguyen, L., Singh, I., Murray, C., Jackson, J., DeRosa, J., and Ho, D., 1998, “70 Micron Fine Pitch Wirebonding,” IEMT ’98, Austin, TX, October 18–24.
Nguyen, L., Lee, S., and Takiar, H., 1998, “Low-Cost Manufacturing Strategy for Miniature Packaging,” IEMT ’98, Austin, TX, October 18–24.
Nguyen, L. T., Jackson, J., Teo, C. H., Chillara, S., Asanasavest, C., Burke, T., Walberg, R., Lo, R., Weiler, P., Ho, D., and Rauhut, H., 1997, “Wire Sweep Control with Mold Compound Formulations,” 47th Electron. Comp. & Tech. Conf., pp. 60–71.
Nguyen, L. T., 1993, “Reactive Flow Simulation in Transfer Molding of IC Packages,” 43rd Electron. Comp. & Tech. Conf., pp. 375–390.
Yang, H.-Q., Bayyuk, S., Mazumder, S., Lowry, S., Krishnan, A., Przekwas, A., Nguyen, L., 1998, “Time-Accurate, 3-D Computation of Wire Sweep During Plastic Encapsulation of Electronic Components With Non-Newtonian Viscosity and Curing Chemistry,” ASME Intl. Symp. on Comput. Techs. for Fluid/Thermal/Chemical Systems with Ind. Apps., San Diego, CA, July.
Nguyen, L., Chen, A., Krishnan, A., Bayyuk, S., Lowry, S., Przekwas, A., and Bidstrup-Allen, S. A., 1997, “A CAD-Based Flow Modeling Tool for Plastic IC Encapsulation,” Interpack ’97, Kohala Coast, Hawaii, June 15–19, pp. 245–252.
Bidstrup-Allen, S. A., Wang, S.-T., Nguyen, L. T., and Arbalaez, F., 1997, “Rheokinetics Models for Epoxy Molding Compounds Used in IC Encapsulation,” First IEEE Int. Symp. on Polymeric Electronics Packaging, Norrköping, Sweden, pp. 149–157.
Kamal,  M. R., Sourour,  S., and Ryan,  M. E., 1973, “Integrated Thermo-Rheological Analysis of the Cure of Thermosets,” SPE Technical Papers, 19, p. 187.
Castro,  J. M., and Macosko,  C. W., 1980, “Kinetics and Rheology of Typical Polyurethane Reaction Injection Molding,” SPE Technical Papers, 26, p. 434.

Figures

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(a) Bottom half of the mold; (b) close-up of instrumented cavities; and (c) sensor layout
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Revised model (Model 2)
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Full scale model (Model 3)
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Short-shots (top view) of the 144-lead TQFP cavity at (a) 1/4, (b) 1/2, and (c) 3/4 fill
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Flow front in the gap (a) above and (b) below the die at 1.5 s. Flow originates from the upper right hand corner.
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Flow front progression below the die at (a) 0.64 s, (b) 1.27 s, (c) 1.91 s, and (d) 2.44 s. A Volume of Fluid (VOF) value of 0.5 denotes the location of the flow front.
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Flow front at fill completion (2.44 s) at (a) the top of the die, and (b) the bottom of the die. Note the voids (VOF<0.5) in the lower left-hand corner of (a) and along the bottom and left-hand edges of (b).
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Simulation results and short shots (top view) at (a) and (b) 4.5 percent and (c) and (d) 12.5 percent of the total fill time. Note the circular impression from the thermocouple.
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Simulation results and short shots (top view) at (a) and (b) 27 percent and (c) and (d) 45.5 percent of the total fill time
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Simulation results and short shots (top view) at (a) and (b) 62 percent and (c) and (d) 81 percent of the total fill time
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Simulation results and short shots (top view) at (a) and (b) 79 percent and (c) and (d) 91 percent of the total fill time
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Predicted temperature (K) of the mold (a) above the die and (b) under the die at fill completion (2.44 s)
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Predicted conversion of the mold compound (a) above the die and (b) under the die at 2.44 s
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Predicted viscosity of the mold compound (a) above the die, and (b) under the die at fill completion (2.44 s). The viscosity values are displayed in terms of the (base 10) logarithm of the viscosity. (A value of 1.5 equals 101.5 or 35.6 Pas).

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