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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Thermomechanical Fatigue Testing and Analysis of Solder Alloys

[+] Author and Article Information
M. A. Palmer, P. E. Redmond, R. W. Messler

Center for Integrated Electronics and Electronics Manufacturing, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180

J. Electron. Packag 122(1), 48-54 (Sep 03, 1999) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.483131 History: Received June 30, 1999; Revised September 03, 1999
Copyright © 2000 by ASME
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References

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Frost, H. J., and Ashby, M. F., 1982, Deformation Mechanism Maps, Pergamon Press.
Frost,  H. J., and Howard,  R. J., 1990, “Creep, Fatigue Modeling for Solder Joint Reliability Predictions Including Microstructural Evolution of the Solder,” IEEE Trans. Compon., Hybrids, Manuf. Technol., 13, pp. 727–735.
Morris, J. W., Tribulo, D., Summers, T., and Grivas, D., 1991, Solder Joint Reliability, J. Kau, ed., Van Norstrand Reinhold, p. 225.
Hall, E. O., 1951, “The Deformation and Ageing of Mild Steel III, Discussion of Results,” Proceedings of the Physical Society B, 6 , pp. 747–753.
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Frear, D. R., 1990, “Microstructural Evolution During TMF of 62Sn-36Pb-2Ag and 60Sn-40Pb Solder Joints,” IEEE Trans. Compon., Hybrids, Manuf. Technol., pp. 718–726.
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Pao, Y. H., Badgley, S., Jih, E., Govila, R., and Browning, J., 1993, “Constitutive Behavior of Low Cycle Thermal Fatigue of 97Sn-3Cu Solder Joints,” ASME J. Electron. Packag., pp. 147–152.
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Haacke, P., Sprecher, A., and Conrad, H., “Thermomechanical Fatigue of 63Sn-37Pb Solder Joints,” Thermal Stress and Strain in Micro Electronics Packaging, J. Lau, ed., SMT Plus Inc., Scotts Valley, CA.
Raeder, C. R., 1996, Ph.D. thesis, “Mechanical Fatigue of Eutectic Tin-Bismuth/Copper Solder Joints,” Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY.
Lau,  J. H., and Rice,  D. W., 1995, “Solder Joint Fatigue in Surface Mount Technology—State of the Art,” Solid State Technol., 10, pp. 91–104.
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Pan,  T. Y., 1994, “Critical Accumulated Strain Energy (Case) Failure Criterion for Thermal Cycling Fatigue of Solder Joints,” ASME J. Electron. Packag., 116, pp. 163–170.
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Figures

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Typical thermal cycle: temperatures in 1 min increments
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Cycle by cycle data for Sn–Bi
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Cycle by cycle data for Sn–Ag
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Cumulative energy in Sn–Bi
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Cumulative energy in Sn–Ag
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Anomalous hysteresis loop
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Sample data. The arrow indicates the time evolution of the hysteresis loop.
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Stress strain data for Sn–Bi in compliant frame, 85 cycles
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Stress strain data for Sn–Pb in compliant frame, 85 cycles
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Energy absorbed per cycle for Sn–Bi in compliant frame
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Load frame used for TMF evaluation
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Energy absorbed per cycle for Sn–Pb in compliant frame
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Cumulative energy distribution for Sn–Bi
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Cumulative energy distribution for Sn–Pb
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Stress strain data for Sn–Bi in stiff frame, 50 cycles
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Stress-strain data for Sn–Ag in stiff frame, 100 cycles

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