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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Temperature-Dependent Popcorning Analysis of Plastic Ball Grid Array Package During Solder Reflow With Fracture Mechanics Method

[+] Author and Article Information
John H. Lau, S. W. Ricky Lee

Express Packaging Systems, Inc., 1137-B San Antonio Road, Palo Alto, CA 94303

J. Electron. Packag 122(1), 34-41 (Aug 31, 1999) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.483129 History: Received January 06, 1999; Revised August 31, 1999
Copyright © 2000 by ASME
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References

Lau, J., Chen, R., and Chang, C., 1998, “Real-Time Popcorn Analysis of Plastic Ball Grid Array Package During Solder Reflow,” Proceedings, 23rd IEEE International Electronics Manufacturing Technology Symposium, October 1998, pp. 455–463.
Lau, J. H., 1995, Ball Grid Array Technology, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Kuo, A. Y., Chen, W. T., Nguyen, L. T., Chen, K. L., and Slenski, G., 1996, “Popcorning-A Fracture Mechanics Approach,” Proceedings, IEEE Electronic Components and Technology Conference, May, pp. 869–874.
Holalkere, V., Mirano, S., Group, A., Kuo, A. Y., Chen, W., T., Sumithpibul, C., 1997, “Evaluation of Plastic Package Delamination via Reliability Testing and Fracture Mechanics Approach,” Proceedings, IEEE Electronic Components and Technology Conference, May, pp. 430–435.
Shirley, A. G., and McCullen, J. T., 1995, Component Reliability, tutorial at the 45th IEEE Electronic Components and Technology Conference.
Hutchinson,  J. W., Suo,  Z., 1992, “Mixed Mode Cracking in Layered Materials,” Adv. Appl. Mech., 29, pp. 64–187.
Rice,  J. R., 1988, “Elastic Fracture Mechanics Concepts for Interfacial Cracks,” ASME J. Appl. Mech., 55, pp. 98–103.
Rybicki,  E., and Kanninen,  M., 1997, “A Finite Element Calculation of Stress Intensity Factors by a Modify Crack Closure Integral,” Eng. Fract. Mech., 9, pp. 931–938.
Malyshev,  B. M., and Salganik,  R. L., 1965, “The Strength of Adhesive Joints Using the Theory of Cracks,” Int. J. Fract. Mech., 1, pp. 114–128.
Lau, J., and Lee, S. W. R., 1999, Chip Scale Packages: Design, Materials, Process, Reliability, and Applications, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Lau, J., 2000, Low-Cost Flip Chip Technologies for DCA, WLCSP, and PBGA Assemblies, McGraw-Hill, New York.

Figures

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Schematic diagram for the crack tip opening displacement (CTOD)
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Schematic diagram for the virtual crack closure technique (VCCT)
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Strain energy release rate for different crack lengths and temperatures by the VCCT and CTOD methods (crack in the die attach)
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Stress intensity factor and phase angle for different crack lengths and discrete temperatures by CTOD method (crack in the die attach)
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Stress intensity factors for different crack lengths and continuous temperatures
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Strain energy release rate with a/L=0.1 (crack in the die attach) by VCCT and CTOD methods
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Strain energy release rate with a/L=0.3 (crack in the die attach) by VCCT and CTOD methods
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Strain energy release rate with a/L=0.5 (crack in the die attach) by VCCT and CTOD methods
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Strain energy release rate with a/L=0.7 (crack in the die attach) by VCCT and CTOD methods
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Stress intensity factors and phase angle with a/L=0.1 (crack in the die attach) by CTOD method
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Schematic diagrams of the PBGA package with two different crack paths
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Young’s modulus of the die attach
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Shear strength of the die attach
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Temperature profile during solder reflow
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Maximum shear stress distribution in the die attach at various temperatures
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The “popcorn” pressure as a function of temperature
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Stress intensity factors and phase angle with a/L=0.3 (crack in the die attach) by CTOD method
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Stress intensity factors and phase angle with a/L=0.5 (crack in the die attach) by CTOD method
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Stress intensity factors and phase angle with a/L=0.7 (crack in the die attach) by CTOD method
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Strain energy release rate at a/L=0.1 (crack at the interface between the solder mask and copper) by VCCT and CTOD methods
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Strain energy release rate with a/L=0.3 (crack at the interface between the solder mask and copper) by VCCT and CTOD methods
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Strain energy release rate with a/L=0.5 (crack at the interface between the solder mask and copper) by VCCT and CTOD methods
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Strain energy release rate with a/L=0.7 (crack at the interface between the solder mask and copper) by VCCT and CTOD methods
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Stress intensity factors and phase angle with a/L=0.1 (crack at the interface between the solder mask and copper) by CTOD method
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Stress intensity factors and phase angle with a/L=0.3 (crack at the interface between the solder mask and copper) by CTOD method
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Stress intensity factors and phase angle with a/L=0.5 (crack at the interface between the solder mask and copper) by CTOD method
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Stress intensity factors and phase angle with a/L=0.7 (crack at the interface between the solder mask and copper) by CTOD method

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