On the Mechanical Reliability of Photo-BCB-Based Thin Film Dielectric Polymer for Electronic Packaging Applications

[+] Author and Article Information
Jang-hi Im, Edward O. Shaffer, Theodore Stokich, Andrew Strandjord, Jack Hetzner, James Curphy, Cheryl Karas

The Dow Chemical Company, Advanced Electronic Materials Laboratory, 1712 Building, Midland, MI 48674

Greg Meyers, David Hawn, Ashok Chakrabarti, Steve Froelicher

The Dow Chemical Company, Analytical Laboratory, 1897 Building, Midland, MI 48674

J. Electron. Packag 122(1), 28-33 (Oct 20, 1999) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.483128 History: Received June 01, 1999; Revised October 20, 1999
Copyright © 2000 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Elenius, P., Janssen, R., and Strandjord, A. J. G., 1997, “Bumping Redistribution Using BCB” Proceedings of Semicon West.
Mis, J., Rinne, G., Deane, P., and Adema, G., 1996, “Flip Chip Production Experience: Some Design, Process, Reliability and Cost Considerations,” Proceedings of ISHM, Minneapolis, MN, pp. 291–295.
Simon, J., Toepper, M., and Reichl, H., 1995, “A Comparison of Flip Chip Technology With Chip Size Packages,” Proceedings of IEPS, San Diego, CA, pp. 665–674.
Clearfield, H., M., Wijeyesekera, S., Logan, E. A., Luu, A., Gieser, D., Lin, C.-M., Jing, J., Rogers, W. B., Scheck, D., Benson, D., and He, J., 1998, “Integrated Passive Devices using AI/BCB Thin Films,” Proceedings of the International Conference on Multichip Modules and High Density Packaging, Denver, CO, pp. 501–505.
Rogers, B., Scheck, D., Garrou, P., Strandjord, A., DeVellis, B., Moyer, E., Ida, Y., and Shiau, S., 1997, “Single Mask Stress Buffer,” Proceedings of the International Symposium on Advanced Packaging Materials. Braselton, GA, pp. 15–18.
Strandjord, A., DeVellis, R., Rogers, W., Garrou, P., Moyer, E., and Becker, G., 1996, “Photosensitive Benzocyclobutene for Stress-Buffer and Passivation Applications (Optical and Photolithographic Properties),” Cost Effective Lithography Symposium, San Francisco, CA, Semicon West, pp. 1–15.
P.,  Garrou, 1992, “Polymeric Dielectrics for Multichip Module Packaging,” Proc. of IEEE, 80, No. 12, pp. 1942–1954.
Skinner,  M., Castillo,  D., Garrou,  P., Rogers,  B., Chazan,  D., Liu,  K., Reinschmidt,  R., Westbrook,  S., and Ho,  C., 1996, “Twinstar—Dual Pentium(c) Processor Module,” Int. J. Microcircuits and Electronic Packaging, 19, No. 4 pp. 358–363.
Wells, G. T., Chau, C. C., Garrou, P., Heistand, R., Cummings, S., Rehg, T., Ho, C., Chieh, E., Gibson, G., Newquist, C., Kruzek, R., Ellec, C., and Vogt, L., 1996, “Consortium for Intelligent Large Area Processing,” Proceedings of ISHM, Minneapolis, MN, pp. 397–402.
Shimoto,  T., Matsui,  K., and Utsumi,  K., 1995, “Cu/Photo-Sensitive-BCB Thin Film Multilayer Technology for High Performance. Multichip Modules,” IEEE Trans. Compon., Packag. Manuf. Technol., Part B, 18, No. 1 pp. 18–22.
Mittal,  K. L., 1987, “Selected Bibliography on Adhesion Measurement of Films and Coatings,” J. Adhes. Sci. Technol., 1, No. 3 pp. 247–259.
Mittal,  K. L., 1976, “Adhesion Measurements on Thin Films,” Electrocomponent Sci. & Tech., 3, pp. 21–42.
Conway,  H. D., and Thomsin,  J. R., 1988, “The Determination of Bond Strength of Polymeric Films by Indentation Debonding,” J. Adhes. Sci. Technol., 2, No. 3pp. 227–236.
Marshall,  D. B., and Evans,  A. G., 1984, “Measurement of Adherence of Residually Stressed Thin Films by Indentation: I—Mechanics of Interface Delamination,” J. Appl. Phys., 56, No. 10 pp. 2632–2638.
Townsend,  P. H., Schmidt,  D., Stokich,  T. M., Kisting,  S., Burdeaux,  D. C., Frye,  D., Bernius,  M., Lanka,  M., and Berry,  K., 1993, “Adhesion of Cyclotene™ Coatings on Silicone Substrates,” Proc. MRS, 323, pp. 365–370.
Suo,  Z., and Hutchinson,  J. W., 1990, “Interface Crack Between Two Elastic Layers,” Int. J. Fract., 43, pp. 1–18.
Ye,  T., Suo,  Z., and Evans,  A. G., 1992, “Thin Film Cracking and the Roles of Substrate and Interface,” Int. J. Solids Struct., 29, No. 21 pp. 2639–2648.
Jansen,  H., Hutchinson,  J. W., and Kim,  K. S., 1990, “Decohesion of a Cut Prestressed Film on a Substrate,” Int. J. Solids Struct., 26, pp. 1009–1114.
Ma,  Q., Bumgarner,  J., Fujimoto,  H., Lane,  M., and Dauskard,  R. H., 1997, “Adhesion Measurement of Interfaces in Multilayer Interconnect Structures,” Proc. MRS, 473, pp. 3–14.
Snodgrass, J. M., Kook, S.-Y., Kirtikar, A., and Dauskardt, R. H., 1997, “Adhesion and Reliability of Polymer/Inorganic Interfaces in Microelectronic Applications,” Application of Fracture Mechanics in Electronic PKG, W. T. Chen, D. T. Read, eds., ASME, New York, pp. 33–40.
Shaffer,  E. O., Hoang,  L., and McGarry,  F. J., 1996, “Edge Liftoff: A New Test for Adhesion,” Polym. Sci. & Eng., 36, No. 18 pp. 2375–2381.
Shaffer II, E. O., Townsend, P. H., and Im, J., 1996, “Measuring and Predicting the Reliability of Low-k Polymeric Dielectric Materials,” Proceedings of MRS, Advanced Metals and Interconnect Systems for ULSI, O. Havemann, ed., Boston, MA, pp. 429–435.
Shaffer II, E. O., Mills, M. E., Hawn, D., Van Gestel, M., Knorr, A., Gundlach, H., Kumar, K., Kaloyeros, A. E., and Gerr, R. E., 1998, “Adhesion Energy Measurements of Multilayer Low-k Dielectric Materials for ULSI Applications,” Proceedings of MRS, San Francisco, CA.
Moyer,  E., Rutter,  E., Bernius,  M., Townsend ,  P., Harris,  R., Projanto,  H., and Denton,  D., 1992, “Phtodefinable BCB Formulations for Thin Film Microelectronic Applications: Part II,” Proc. IEPS, 1, pp. 37–50.
Strandjord, A. J. G., Ida, Y., Garrou, P., Rogers, W. B., Cummings, S., and Kisting, S., 1995, “MCM-D Fabrication With Photosensitive Benzocyclobutene: (Processing, Solder Bumping, Systems Assembly, and Testing).” Proceedings ISHM, Los Angeles, CA, pp. 402–417.
Strandjord,  A. J. G., Scheck,  D., Kisting,  S. R., Rogers,  W. B., Garrou,  P. E., Ida,  Y., and Cummings,  S. L., 1996, “Process Optimization and Systems Integration of a Cu/Photosensitive Benzocyclobutene MCM-D: Dielectric Processing, Metallization, Solder Bumping, Device Assembly and Testing,” Int. J. Microcircuits and Electronic Packaging, 19, pp. 260–280.
Gong,  J., Strandberg,  F., Theide,  H., Hentzell,  H., Hesselbloom,  H., and Karner,  W., 1993, “Investigation of High Speed Pulse Transmission in MCM-D,” IEEE Trans. On CHMT, 16, pp. 735–742.
Im J., Shaffer II, E. O., Peters, R., Rey, T., Murlick, C., Sammler, R. L., 1996, “Physical and Mechanical Properties Determination of Photo-BCB-Based Thin Films,” Proceedings of ISHM, Minneapolis, MN, pp. 168–175.
Pranjoto,  H., and Denton,  D., 1990, “Moisture Uptake in BCB Films for Electronic Packaging Applications,” Proc. MRS, 203, pp. 295–302.
Heistand II, R., DeVellis, R., Garrou, P., Burdeaux, D., Stokich J., T., Townsend, P. Manial, T., Bratton, L., Davis, F., Berry, K., Highstreet, K., Lanka, M., and Tozer, M., 1992, “Cyclotene 3022 (BCB) for Non-Hermetic Packaging,” Proceedings of ISHM, pp. 584–590.


Grahic Jump Location
Schematic of m-ELT specimen with a backing layer
Grahic Jump Location
Interfacial fracture energy, Gc, of Cyclotene 4024 to various surfaces, showing improved adhesion by using the adhension promoter, AP-3000
Grahic Jump Location
Low magnification optical micrograph of m-ELT fracture surface of the substrate side of photo-BCB/Si sample with promoter incorporated, showing feather-like rough texture (A), failure into the silicon (B), and smooth texture (C)
Grahic Jump Location
Perspective view of AFM images from area “A” in Fig. 4, showing ridges of Photo-BCB
Grahic Jump Location
Perspective view of AFM images of substrate side of fractured Cyclotene 4024/Si interface (a) without promoter and (b) area “C” in Fig. 4 (with promoter)
Grahic Jump Location
High resolution silicon (2p) XPS spectra of the fracture surfaces, matching AFM areas of (a) Fig. 6(a) and (b) Fig. 6(b). Spectra have been shifted on the binding energy axis to correct for sample charging.
Grahic Jump Location
Moisture uptake (84 percent RH, 23°C) and drying (0 percent RH, 23°C) with time, for 5 μm film from Cyclotene 4024
Grahic Jump Location
Plot of total sample weight during isothermal exposure of 10 μm film from Cyclotene 4026 on thermally oxidized silicon wafer at 350°C in helium purge
Grahic Jump Location
Weight loss rate constant versus 1/T for 10 μm film from Cyclotene 4026, showing activation energy of 36.5 Kcal/mol



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In