A System for First Order Reliability Estimation of Solder Joints in Area Array Packages

[+] Author and Article Information
Anand M. Deshpande, Ganesh Subbarayan

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309-0427

Dan Rose

Storage Technology Corporation, Louisville, CO 80028-9152

J. Electron. Packag 122(1), 6-12 (Dec 09, 1999) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.483125 History: Received July 29, 1998; Revised December 09, 1999
Copyright © 2000 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Corbin,  J. S., 1993, “Finite Element Analysis for Solder Ball Connect (SBC) Structural Design Optimization,” IBM J. Res. Dev., 37, pp. 585–596.
Guo,  Y., Lim,  C. K., Chen,  W. T., and Woychik,  C. G., 1993, “Solder Ball Connect (SBC) Assemblies Under Thermal Loading: I—Deformation Measurement via Moiré Interferometry, and its Interpretation,” IBM J. Res. Dev., 37, pp. 635–647.
Deshpande,  A. M., Subbarayan,  G., and Mahajan,  R. L., 1997, “Maximizing Solder Joint Reliability Through Optimal Shape Design,” ASME J. Electron. Packag., 199, No. 3, pp. 149–155.
Haftka, R. T., and Gurdal, Z., 1992, Elements of Structural Optimization, Kluwer Academic Publications, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
Zhang, I., Hunter, B., Subbarayan, G., and Rose, D., 1998, “The Accuracy of Structural Approximations Employed in Analysis of Area Array Packages,” Sixth Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems (Itherm 98), May, 27–30, 1998, Seattle, WA.
SIA, 1997, “The National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors.”
Lochner, R. H., and Matar, J. E., 1990, Designing for Quality, ASQC Quality Press, American Society for Quality Control, Milwaukee, WI.
Subbarayan, G., 1995, “A procedure for Automated Profile and Life Prediction in Flip-Chip and BGA Solder Joints Part I: Mathematical Model,” ASME Paper 95-WA/EEP-17.
Subbarayan, G., 1995, “A Procedure for Automated Profile and Life Prediction in Flip-Chip and BGA Solder Joints Part II: Numerical Solution,” ASME Paper 95-WA/EEP-25.
Subbarayan,  G., 1996, “A Procedure for Automated Profile and Life Prediction in Flip-Chip and BGA Solder Joints,” ASME J. Electron. Packag., 118, pp. 127–333.
Hibbitt, Karlsson & Sorensen, Inc., 1995, ABAQUS user’s manual, version 5.5.
Hwang, J. S., 1989, Solder Paste in Electronics Packaging, Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Darveaux, B. K., Mawer, A., and Doddy, G., 1995, Reliability of Plastic Ball Grid Array Assembly, Ball Grid Technology, J. H. Lau, ed., McGraw Hill, Inc., New York.
Coffin,  L. F., 1954, “A Study of Cyclic Thermal Stresses in a Ductile Metal,” Trans. ASME, 76, pp. 931–950.
Manson, S. S., 1953, “Behavior of Materials Under Conditions of Thermal Stress,” Heat Transfer Symposium, University of Michigan Engineering Research Institute, Ann Arbor, MI, pp. 9–75.
Coffin, L. F., Jr., 1969, “Predictive Parameters and Their Application to High Temperature Low Cycle Fatigue Fracture,” Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Fracture, Brighton, 1969, Chapman and Hall, London, pp. 643–654.
Norris,  K. C., and Landzberg,  A. H., 1969, “Reliability of Controlled Collapse Interconnections,” IBM J. Res. Dev., 13, pp. 266–271.
Halford, G. R., Hirschberg, M. H., and Manson, S. S., 1972, “Temperature Effects on the Strain Range Partitioning Approach for Creep-Fatigue Analysis,” Program of the 1972 Symposium on Fatigue at Elevated Temperatures, p. vii+92, 67–8.
Dasgupta,  A., Oyan,  C., Barker,  D., and Pecht,  M., 1992, “Solder Creep-Fatigue Analysis by an Energy-Partitioning Approach,” ASME J. Electron. Packag., 114, pp. 152–159.
Vaynman,  S., and McKeown,  A., 1993, “Energy Based Methodology for the Fatigue Life Prediction of Solder Materials,” IEEE Trans. Compon., Hybrids, Manuf. Technol., 16, pp. 317–322.
Solomon,  H. D., and Tolksdorf,  E. D., 1995, “Energy Approach to the Fatigue of 60/40 Solder: Part I—Influence of Temperature and Cycle Frequency,” ASME J. Electron. Packag., 117, No. 2, pp. 130–135.
Solomon,  H. D., and Tolksdorf,  E. D., 1996, “Energy Approach to the Fatigue of 60/40 Solder: Part II—Influence of Hold Time and Asymmetric Loading,” ASME J. Electron. Packag., 118, pp. 67–71.
Ishikawa,  H., Sasaki,  K., and Ohguchi,  K., 1996, “Prediction of Fatigue Failure of 60Sn-40Pb solder Using Constitutive Model for Cyclic Viscoplasticity,” ASME J. Electron. Packag., 118, pp. 164–169.
Smith, M., 1996, Neural Networks for Statistical Modeling, International Thompson Computer Press.
Hornik,  K., Stinchcombe,  M., and White,  H., 1989, “Multilayer Feedforward Networks are Universal Approximators,” Neural Networks, 2, pp. 183–192.
Cybenko,  G., 1989, “Approximation by Superposition of Sigmoidal Functions,” Math. Control, Signals, Syst. 2, pp. 303–314.
Drakopoulos, P., 1997, “Color Printer Characterization Using Optimization Theory and Artificial Neural Networks,” M. S. thesis, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO.


Grahic Jump Location
Moiré analysis of 225 I/O PBGA: (a) fringe patterns; (b) shear deformation across solder joints
Grahic Jump Location
Schematic illustration of CAD system for flip-chip/BGA solder joints
Grahic Jump Location
A typical finite element model of a solder joint
Grahic Jump Location
Schematic of the structure of an ANN model
Grahic Jump Location
The dialogue box for the model to quickly estimate reliability



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In