A Finite-Element and Experimental Analysis of Stress Distribution in Various Shear Tests for Solder Joints

[+] Author and Article Information
T. Reinikainen

Nokia Research Center, P.O. Box 407, 00045 NOKIA GROUP, Finland

M. Poech, M. Krumm

CEM GmbH, Itzehoe, Germany

J. Kivilahti

Helsinki University of Technology, Laboratory of Electronics Manufacturing, Otakaari 5A, 02150 Espoo, Finland

J. Electron. Packag 120(1), 106-113 (Mar 01, 1998) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2792277 History: Received June 01, 1996; Revised November 03, 1997; Online November 06, 2007


Solder alloys are commonly tested with shear tests to study their mechanical properties or low-cycle fatigue performance. In this work, the suitability of various shear tests for quantitative solder-joint testing is investigated by means of the finite element method. The stress state and stress distribution in the following well known geometries are studied: the double-lap test, the ring and plug test, the losipescu test, and two single-lap tests. A new test geometry, the grooved-lap test, is introduced and compared to the conventional tests. The results of simulations with an elastic material model in plane-strain indicate that considerable differences in the purity of the state of shear (rε = −ε1 /ε3 ) as well as in the stress distribution in the joint exist among the shear tests. However, simulations with a nonlinear material model show that stress inhomogenities are smoothed by the plastic and creep deformation occurring in the joint. Optical measurements of the deformation of real single-lap and grooved-lap joints show that the single-lap joint rotates slightly during creep, whereas in the grooved-lap joint no rotation can be detected. This confirms the simulation results that in the single-lap test the initially nonuniform stress distribution changes during creep, and in the grooved-lap test the uniform stress distribution remains constant through the test.

Copyright © 1998 by The American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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