Research Papers

Reliability Analysis of Lead-Free Solders in Electronic Packaging Using a Novel Surrogate Model and Kriging Concept

[+] Author and Article Information
Hamoon Azizsoltani

Department of Civil Engineering and
Engineering Mechanics,
University of Arizona,
P.O. Box 210072,
Tucson, AZ 85721;
Department of Computer Science,
North Carolina State University,
P.O. Box 8206,
Raleigh, NC 27606
e-mail: azizsoltani@email.arizona.edu

Achintya Haldar

Department of Civil Engineering and
Engineering Mechanics,
University of Arizona,
P.O. Box 210072,
Tucson, AZ 85721
e-mail: haldar@u.arizona.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC PACKAGING. Manuscript received May 3, 2017; final manuscript received July 16, 2018; published online August 20, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Jeffrey C. Suhling.

J. Electron. Packag 140(4), 041003 (Aug 20, 2018) (11 pages) Paper No: EP-17-1047; doi: 10.1115/1.4040924 History: Received May 03, 2017; Revised July 16, 2018

A novel reliability evaluation procedure of lead-free solders used in electronic packaging (EP) subjected to thermomechanical loading is proposed. A solder ball is represented by finite elements (FEs). Major sources of nonlinearities are incorporated as realistically as practicable. Uncertainties in all design variables are quantified using available information. The thermomechanical loading is represented by five design parameters and uncertainties associated with them are incorporated. Since the performance or limit state function (LSF) of such complicated problem is implicit in nature, it is approximately generated explicitly in the failure region with the help of a completely improved response surface method (RSM)-based approach and the universal Kriging method (KM). The response surface (RS) is generated by conducting as few deterministic nonlinear finite element analyses as possible by integrating several advanced factorial mathematical concepts producing compounding beneficial effect. The accuracy, efficiency, and application potential of the procedure are established with the help of Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) and the results from laboratory investigation reported in the literature. The study conclusively verified the proposed method. Similar studies can be conducted to fill the knowledge gap for cases where the available analytical and experimental studies are limited or extend the information to cases where reliability information is unavailable. The study showcased how reliability information can be extracted with the help of multiple deterministic analyses. The authors believe that they proposed an alternative to the classical MCS technique.

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Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Solder ball schematic

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Solder ball (a) geometry and FE mesh and (b) layout

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Hierarchical single surface yield surface in J1−J2D space

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Variation of MFTD and MFT

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Probability of failure versus number of thermomechanical loading cycles profile



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