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SPECIAL SECTION PAPERS

Vibration-Induced Failures in Automotive Electronics: Knowledge-Based Qualification Perspective

[+] Author and Article Information
Karumbu Meyyappan, Qifeng Wu

Intel Corp.,
Portland, OR 97124

Milena Vujosevic

Intel Corp.,
Santa Clara, CA 95054

Pramod Malatkar, Charles Hill, Ryan Parrott

Intel Corp.,
Chandler, AZ 85226

Contributed by the Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC PACKAGING. Manuscript received September 16, 2017; final manuscript received January 13, 2018; published online May 9, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Sreekant Narumanchi.

J. Electron. Packag 140(2), 020905 (May 09, 2018) (12 pages) Paper No: EP-17-1083; doi: 10.1115/1.4039301 History: Received September 16, 2017; Revised January 13, 2018

This paper intends to address an important gap between reliability standards and the physics of how components respond to real use conditions using a knowledge-based qualification (KBQ) process. Bridging the gap is essential to developing test methods that better reflect field performance. With the growth in importance of automotive market and the wide usage of electronics in this market, vibration-induced failures was chosen for this study. MIL-STD-810G and ISTA4AB are couple of industry standards that address the risk of shipping finished goods to a customer. For automotive electronic products that are exposed to vibration conditions all through their life, USCAR-2 and GMW3172 are more relevant. Even though the usage models and transportation duration for shipping fully packaged systems is different from automotive electronics, the source of energy (road conditions), driving the risks, are similar. The industry standards-based damage models appear to be generic, covering a wide variety of products and failure modes. Whereas, the KBQ framework, used in this paper, maps use conditions to accelerated test requirements for only two failure modes: solder joint fatigue and socket contact fretting. The mechanisms were chosen to be distinct with different damage metric and drivers. The process is intended to explain how industry standards reflect field risks for two of the risks relevant for automotive electronics.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Fingerprinting vibration energy levels

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Fig. 2

Acceleration comparison across all sources

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Fig. 3

Illustration of transportation-induced vibration to component

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Fig. 4

Solder joint stresses and correlation to crack initiation site [21]

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Fig. 5

Solder joint stress contour and growth direction [21]

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Fig. 6

Board strain versus cycles to failure (lead free SJ)

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Fig. 7

Fretting motion illustration from Ref. [29]

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Fig. 8

Illustration of usages to be studied

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Fig. 9

PSD profiles for the case studies

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Fig. 10

System with components of interest on motherboard

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Fig. 11

Illustration of global model with substratures

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Fig. 12

Board strain contour

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Fig. 13

Finite element model validation: (a) validating G versus time and (b) validating Grms

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Fig. 14

Solder joint strain versus time

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Fig. 15

Rainflow cycle counting method demonstration [34]

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Fig. 16

Frequency of strain range

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Fig. 17

Local model to track contact horizontal motion

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Fig. 18

Auto-extraction of scratch parameters

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Fig. 19

Model versus test for fretting wear length

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Fig. 20

Acceleration over heat sink in socket 1 (MIL standard)

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Fig. 21

Contact horizontal travel (MIL standard)

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Fig. 22

Strain versus acceleration

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Fig. 23

Comparison of wear length—packaged boxed

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Fig. 24

Comparison of wear length—electronics integrated into car

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