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Research Papers

On-Chip Power Generation Using Ultrathin Thermoelectric Generators

[+] Author and Article Information
Owen Sullivan

G. W. Woodruff School
of Mechanical Engineering,
Georgia Institute of Technology,
771 First Drive,
Atlanta, GA 30332
e-mail: oasullivan@gmail.com

Man Prakash Gupta

G. W. Woodruff School
of Mechanical Engineering,
Georgia Institute of Technology,
771 First Drive,
Atlanta, GA 30332
e-mail: mp.gupta@gatech.edu

Saibal Mukhopadhyay

Department of Electrical
and Computer Engineering,
Georgia Institute of Technology,
266 Ferst Drive,
Atlanta, GA 30332
e-mail: saibal@ece.gatech.edu

Satish Kumar

G. W. Woodruff School
of Mechanical Engineering,
Georgia Institute of Technology,
771 First Drive,
Atlanta, GA 30332
e-mail: satish.kumar@me.gatech.edu

Contributed by the Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC PACKAGING. Manuscript received February 3, 2014; final manuscript received June 13, 2014; published online October 6, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Gongnan Xie.

J. Electron. Packag 137(1), 011005 (Oct 06, 2014) (7 pages) Paper No: EP-14-1012; doi: 10.1115/1.4027995 History: Received February 03, 2014; Revised June 13, 2014

Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) can significantly improve the net power consumption and battery life of the low power mobile devices or high performance devices by generating power from their waste heat. Recent advancements also show that the ultrathin thermoelectric devices can be fabricated and integrated within a micro-electronic package. This work investigates the power generation by an ultrathin TEG embedded within a micro-electronic package considering several key parameters such as load resistance, chip heat flux, and proximity of the TEG to chip. The analysis shows that the power generation from TEGs increases with increasing background heat flux on chip or when TEGs are moved closer to the chip. An array of embedded TEGs is considered in order to analyze the influence of multiple TEGs on total power generation and conversion efficiency. Increasing the number of TEGs from one to nine increases the useful power generation from 72.9 mW to 378.4 mW but decreases the average conversion efficiency from 0.47% to 0.32%. The average power generated per TEG gradually decrease from 72.9 mW to 42.0 mW when number of TEGs is increased from one to nine, but the total useful power generated using nine TEGs is significant and emphasize the benefits of using embedded TEGs to reduce net power consumption in electronics packages.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the electronic package with embedded TEGs and (b) layout of the array of nine TEGs

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Fig. 2

(a) Voltage and current as a function of load resistance and (b) temperature difference between hot and cold junctions as a function of load resistance, for single TEG located at position five in Fig. 1(b)

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Fig. 3

Total power and useful power (in milliwatts) as a function of load resistance for single TEG at position five

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Fig. 4

(a) Voltage and current and (b) total power and useful power as a function of load resistance for single TEG at position five without considering Peltier effects

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Fig. 5

(a) Voltage and current and (b) useful power as a function of background heat flux for single TEG at position five

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Fig. 6

Conversion efficiency of single TEG at position five as a function of background heat flux

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Fig. 7

(a) Voltage and current and (b) useful power as a function of TEG's proximity to chip for single TEG at position five

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Fig. 8

Conversion efficiency of single TEG at position five as a function of TEG's proximity to chip

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Fig. 9

Total useful power and average useful power per TEG in milliwatts for five setups with varying number of TEGs on chip: (1) TEG 5 only; (2) TEGs 3, 5, and 7; (3) TEGs 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9; (4) all TEGs except 2 and 8; (5) all TEGs 1–9. Numbering of TEGs corresponds to setup shown in Fig. 1.

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Fig. 10

Average conversion efficiency of all TEGs and of center TEG only for the five setups outlined in Fig. 9

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Fig. 11

Transient (a) useful power response and (b) hot (TH) and cold (TC) junction temperatures (right y-axis) and temperature difference (TH − TC) (left y-axis) of TEG when background heatflux changes from 10 W/cm2 to 100 W/cm2

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