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Research Papers

Evaluation of Nonintrusive Active Infrared Thermography Technique to Detect Hidden Solder Ball Defects on Plastic Ball Grid Array Components

[+] Author and Article Information
Benjamin Giron-Palomares

Mechanical Engineering Department,
388 Yuhangtang Road,
Engineering Training Center,
Room 105, Zhejiang University,
Hangzhou 310058, China
e-mail: Tiny_ikari@yahoo.com.mx

Xin Fu

Mechanical Engineering Department,
38 Zheda Road,
The State Key Lab of Fluid Power Transmission
and Control,
Room 207, Zhejiang University,
Hangzhou 310027, China
e-mail: xfu@zju.edu.cn

Abel Hernandez-Guerrero

Mem. ASME
Mechanical Engineering Department,
Salamanca, Guanatuato 36885, Mexico
e-mail: abel@ugto.mx

Bladimir Ramos-Alvarado

Mem. ASME
The George W. Woodruff School
of Mechanical Engineering,
771 Ferst Drive,
J. Erskine Love Manufacturing Building NW,
Georgia Institute of Technology,
Atlanta, GA 30332
e-mail: bra3@gatech.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Electronic and Photonic Packaging Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC PACKAGING. Manuscript received September 28, 2013; final manuscript received April 3, 2014; published online May 12, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Masaru Ishizuka.

J. Electron. Packag 136(3), 031008 (May 12, 2014) (8 pages) Paper No: EP-13-1114; doi: 10.1115/1.4027378 History: Received September 28, 2013; Revised April 03, 2014

It is essential for electronics reliability to develop effective methodologies to detect hidden solder joint defects. Active infrared thermography is an alternative to X-ray detection methodologies. The limits of active infrared thermography to detect solder ball defects on plastic ball grid arrays (PBGA) components (missing, open, cracked, and head on pillow defects) are investigated here. A FEM was used to simulate the thermal phenomena during the infrared thermography inspection of a PBGA component. The FEM was proven to be temporal and spatial grids size independent. The average temperature difference (ΔT) amid regions with and without defects was used as a detectability indicator. Defects detectability was found to decrease as the number of blocking objects increases. Missing solder balls were barely detected when blocked by the substrate and moulding compound with detectability numbers close to 1 °C. Head on pillow and cracked defects were impossible to detect with a maximum ΔT = 0.6 °C. Open solder balls were not detected below two objects with a maximum ΔT = 0.3 °C. These results clearly suggest that infrared thermography can be effectively used to detect hidden missing and open solder ball defects on PBGA components composed by a substrate and a die.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of the 388LD/PBGA: (a) side and (b) top views of one-fourth of the component. Note: dimensions are in millimeters and the parallel piped components have a square cross section.

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Fig. 2

Side view of the mesh developed for the PBGA assembly

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Fig. 3

Component mask showing the inspection surface regions for the mesh independence study

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Fig. 4

Component mask showing the missing solder joint defects location and its respective inspection surface region

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Fig. 5

Thermal contour for a PBGA assembly with no defects during an active infrared thermography inspection simulation after 9 s of heating

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Fig. 6

Detectability variation as inspection region size increases during heating for missing solder joint 3

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Fig. 7

Comparison of detectability on function of defect number

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Fig. 8

Geometric models developed for: (a) head on pillow, (b) open, and (c) cracked solder joints; R1 = 0.380, L1 = 0.260, L2 = 0.096, L3 = 0.016, L4 = 0.032, H1 = 0.480. Note: dimensions are in millimeters.

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Fig. 9

Component mask showing: head on pillow, open, and cracked solder joint defects location and its respective inspection surface region. Note: hp, op, and ck abbreviations mean head on pillow, open, and cracked solder joint defects, respectively.

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Fig. 10

Detectability as function of blocking objects for open solder joint defects; op, open solder joint defect

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Fig. 11

Detectability as function of blocking objects for cracked solder joint defects; ck, crack defect

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Fig. 12

Detectability as function of defect kind. Note: hp, op, and ck abbreviations mean head on pillow, open, and cracked solder joint defects, respectively.

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Fig. 13

Detectability versus time for head on pillow (hp), open (op), and cracked defects (ck). Note: The reader should be cautious when deriving conclusions from this plot. Comparisons among kind of defects is possible if they are located on a region of the PBGA component that exhibits the same characteristics (e.g., comparison among 9 op, 8 hp, and 10 ck is valid but not among 9 op, 5 hp, and 3 ck. Comparisons among the same kind of defects are possible to study the effect of defect location on the PBGA component.

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